OpenWRT(九)DTS及串口

一、DTS

DTS是Device Tree Source的缩写,它用来描述设备的硬件细节。说简单点就是开发板的配置文件。

二、分析OpenWRT的dts文件

以rt5350.dtsi作为分析

//DTS格式有点类似Json

/ {															// "/"表示root节点
  //#address-cells和#size-cells分别决定reg属性的address和length字段的长度。比如reg<0x500 0x100>,0x500和0x100两个数值都是32位的
	#address-cells = <1>;         //地址长度为1个32位的整型
	#size-cells = <1>;            //length为1个32位的整型
	//ralink:厂商  rt5350-soc:具体的芯片型号
	compatible = "ralink,rt5350-soc";  //定义系统名称,compatible属性用于驱动和设备的绑定,属性值形式:<manufacturer>,<model>

	cpus {   //芯片中的所有cpu定义
		cpu@0 {    //cpu@0表示第一个cpu,如果还有其他cpu就依次定义为cpu@1 cpu@2 .....
			compatible = "mips,mips24KEc";   //mips的cpu内核,mips24KEc是具体型号
		};
	};

	chosen {
		bootargs = "console=ttyS0,57600"; //启动参数,定义了串口ttyS0为调试串口,波特率为57600
	};

	cpuintc: cpuintc@0 {
		#address-cells = <0>;
		#interrupt-cells = <1>;   //中断号长度
		interrupt-controller;
		compatible = "mti,cpu-interrupt-controller";
	};

	aliases {         //定义别名
		spi0 = &spi0;
		spi1 = &spi1;
		serial0 = &uartlite;   //uartlite的别名为serial0
	};

	palmbus@10000000 {  // @后面代表address
		compatible = "palmbus";
		reg = <0x10000000 0x200000>;         //address: 0x10000000   length:0x200000
		ranges = <0x0 0x10000000 0x1FFFFF>;  //地址转换表 :<子地址 父地址 子地址空间的映射大小>

		#address-cells = <1>;     //决定子节点reg的address字段长度
		#size-cells = <1>;        //决定子节点reg的length字段长度

		sysc@0 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-sysc", "ralink,rt3050-sysc";   //兼容rt5350和rt3050
			reg = <0x0 0x100>;
		};

		timer@100 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-timer", "ralink,rt2880-timer";
			reg = <0x100 0x20>;
			//在RT5350中,将GPIO设置为中断方式,当它触发中断时,CPU的中断控制器先获取中断,在这里叫一级中断。
			//判断它是GPIO中断,然后进入GPIO中断控制器判断是哪个GPIO产生的中断,这里叫二级中断,再进行中断处理。
			interrupt-parent = <&intc>;    //当上级发生intc中断时才来查询是否是该中断。
			interrupts = <1>;        //中断等级
		};

		watchdog@120 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-wdt", "ralink,rt2880-wdt";
			reg = <0x120 0x10>;

			resets = <&rstctrl 8>;
			reset-names = "wdt";

			interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
			interrupts = <1>;
		};

		intc: intc@200 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-intc", "ralink,rt2880-intc";
			reg = <0x200 0x100>;

			resets = <&rstctrl 19>;
			reset-names = "intc";

			interrupt-controller;
			#interrupt-cells = <1>;

			interrupt-parent = <&cpuintc>;
			interrupts = <2>;
		};

		memc@300 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-memc", "ralink,rt3050-memc";
			reg = <0x300 0x100>;

			resets = <&rstctrl 20>;
			reset-names = "mc";

			interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
			interrupts = <3>;
		};

		uart@500 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-uart", "ralink,rt2880-uart", "ns16550a";
			reg = <0x500 0x100>;

			resets = <&rstctrl 12>;
			reset-names = "uart";

			interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
			interrupts = <5>;

			reg-shift = <2>;

			status = "disabled";
		};

		gpio0: gpio@600 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-gpio", "ralink,rt2880-gpio";
			reg = <0x600 0x34>;

			resets = <&rstctrl 13>;
			reset-names = "pio";

			interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
			interrupts = <6>;

			gpio-controller;
			#gpio-cells = <2>;

			ralink,gpio-base = <0>;
			ralink,num-gpios = <22>;
			ralink,register-map = [ 00 04 08 0c
						20 24 28 2c
						30 34 ];
		};

		gpio1: gpio@660 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-gpio", "ralink,rt2880-gpio";
			reg = <0x660 0x24>;

			interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
			interrupts = <6>;

			gpio-controller;
			#gpio-cells = <2>;

			ralink,gpio-base = <22>;
			ralink,num-gpios = <6>;
			ralink,register-map = [ 00 04 08 0c
						10 14 18 1c
						20 24 ];

			status = "disabled";     //本模块状态
		};

		i2c@900 {
			compatible = "link,rt5350-i2c", "ralink,rt2880-i2c";
			reg = <0x900 0x100>;

			resets = <&rstctrl 16>;
			reset-names = "i2c";

			#address-cells = <1>;
			#size-cells = <0>;

			pinctrl-names = "default";
			pinctrl-0 = <&i2c_pins>;

			status = "disabled";
		};

		spi0: spi@b00 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-spi", "ralink,rt2880-spi";
			reg = <0xb00 0x40>;

			resets = <&rstctrl 18>;
			reset-names = "spi";

			#address-cells = <1>;
			#size-cells = <1>;

			pinctrl-names = "default";
			pinctrl-0 = <&spi_pins>;

			status = "disabled";
		};

		spi1: spi@b40 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-spi", "ralink,rt2880-spi";
			reg = <0xb40 0x60>;

			resets = <&rstctrl 18>;
			reset-names = "spi";

			#address-cells = <1>;
			#size-cells = <0>;

			pinctrl-names = "default";
			pinctrl-0 = <&spi_cs1>;

			status = "disabled";
		};

		uartlite: uartlite@c00 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-uart", "ralink,rt2880-uart", "ns16550a";
			reg = <0xc00 0x100>;

			resets = <&rstctrl 19>;
			reset-names = "uartl";

			interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
			interrupts = <12>;

			pinctrl-names = "default";
			pinctrl-0 = <&uartlite_pins>;

			reg-shift = <2>;
		};

		systick@d00 {
			compatible = "ralink,rt5350-systick", "ralink,cevt-systick";
			reg = <0xd00 0x10>;

			interrupt-parent = <&cpuintc>;
			interrupts = <7>;
		};
	};

	pinctrl {  //引脚控制
		compatible = "ralink,rt2880-pinmux";

		pinctrl-names = "default";
		pinctrl-0 = <&state_default>;

		state_default: pinctrl0 {
		};

		spi_pins: spi {
			spi {
				ralink,group = "spi";
				ralink,function = "spi";
			};
		};

		i2c_pins: i2c {
			i2c {
				ralink,group = "i2c";
				ralink,function = "i2c";
			};
		};

		phy_led_pins: phy_led {
			phy_led {
				ralink,group = "led";
				ralink,function = "led";
			};
		};

		uartlite_pins: uartlite {
			uart {
				ralink,group = "uartlite";
				ralink,function = "uartlite";
			};
		};

		uartf_pins: uartf {
			uartf {
				ralink,group = "uartf";
				ralink,function = "uartf";
			};
		};

		spi_cs1: spi1 {
			spi1 {
				ralink,group = "spi_cs1";
				ralink,function = "spi_cs1";
			};
		};
	};

	rstctrl: rstctrl {
		compatible = "ralink,rt5350-reset", "ralink,rt2880-reset";
		#reset-cells = <1>;
	};

	usbphy: usbphy {
		compatible = "ralink,rt3352-usbphy";
		#phy-cells = <1>;

		resets = <&rstctrl 22 &rstctrl 25>;
		reset-names = "host", "device";
	};

	ethernet@10100000 {
		compatible = "ralink,rt5350-eth";
		reg = <0x10100000 0x10000>;

		resets = <&rstctrl 21 &rstctrl 23>;
		reset-names = "fe", "esw";

		interrupt-parent = <&cpuintc>;
		interrupts = <5>;

		mediatek,switch = <&esw>;
	};

	esw: esw@10110000 {
		compatible = "ralink,rt3050-esw";
		reg = <0x10110000 0x8000>;

		resets = <&rstctrl 23>;
		reset-names = "esw";

		interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
		interrupts = <17>;
	};

	wmac@10180000 {
		compatible = "ralink,rt5350-wmac", "ralink,rt2880-wmac";
		reg = <0x10180000 0x40000>;

		interrupt-parent = <&cpuintc>;
		interrupts = <6>;

		ralink,eeprom = "soc_wmac.eeprom";
	};

	ehci@101c0000 {
		compatible = "generic-ehci";
		reg = <0x101c0000 0x1000>;

		phys = <&usbphy 1>;
		phy-names = "usb";

		interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
		interrupts = <18>;
	};

	ohci@101c1000 {
		compatible = "generic-ohci";
		reg = <0x101c1000 0x1000>;

		phys = <&usbphy 1>;
		phy-names = "usb";

		interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
		interrupts = <18>;
	};
};

三、OpenWRT串口的使用

以RT5350进行举例:
1、进入openwrt/target/linux/ramips/dts目录,打开rt5350.dtsi,即上面的文件。找到下面的内容:
这里写图片描述
将红色框框的内容去掉就使能了串口。

2、因为uart的配置在uartlite(调试串口)前面,所以uart会被初始化为ttyS0,而ttyS0之前却被配置为调试串口。
这里写图片描述
为了解决这个问题,我们将uart的配置放到uartlite后面就可以了!
这里写图片描述

3、串口引脚之前被配置为普通IO口,所以为了防止干扰需要把IO口中的配置去掉。打开openwrt/target/linux/ramips/dts/MPRA2.dts,找到下面内容
这里写图片描述
把红色框框的内容去掉。

4、重新编译就OK了! 将编译好的固件下载到开发板后启动系统后,在/dev/目录下会多出ttyS1这个设备。这个就是我们添加的串口设备。

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